高精度时频信号传递是现代物理学、天文学和计量科学所需要的重要技术. 要实现空间高精度时频传递必须考虑相对论效应的影响. 在IAU(国际天文学联合会)2000决议提出的相对论天文参考架下, 结合当今国内外微波和激光链路传递技术, 考察了在信号传递过程中涉及到的相对论效应, 在地心天球坐标系下提出了超高精度的相对论理论模型($1/c^4$量级), 可用于未来高精度频率传递试验. 并在该频率不确定度的前提下结合实例对定轨精度、信号转发间隔等技术指标给出了约束条件, 对于国内未来空间超高精度时频传递以及开展相关的科研任务具有较重要的参考和应用价值.
It is imperative to take the effect of general relativity into account when referring to the realization of time-frequency transmission in space at an ultra-high accuracy, so in this paper we consider a theoretical model of frequency transmission in the geocentric reference system at the level of $1/c^4$ under the IAU2000 resolution about relativistic reference frames. In order to develop this model, we adopt the method of time transfer function which was once used to establish the processing model for ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) mission, and to evaluate each possible relativistic effects on frequency during the period from the emission to the reception. Besides, the constraints about the accuracy of orbit determination and the interval between the reception and retransmission of the satellite in the link of $\Lambda$-configuration are valued so as to meet the requirement of the given frequency uncertainty. It will have a potential reference and application value for realizing the high-precision spatial time-frequency transmission, and carrying out related scientific researches and tasks in China.